A number of tests may be performed to investigate symptoms of bladder cancer and confirm a diagnosis. Some of the more common tests include:
- a physical examination
- examination of a urine sample
- imaging of the bladder and nearby organs, which may include ultrasound, X-ray, computed tomography (CT) scans or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
- examination of the inside of the bladder using a cystoscope (a camera on a thin tube inserted into the urethra)
- taking a sample of tissue (biopsy) from the bladder wall for examination under a microscope.
Stenzl A, Witjes JA, Comperat E, et al. Guidelines on bladder cancer: muscle-invasive and metastatic. European Association of Urology, 2012.